Skip to content

Information for students, faculty and staff regarding COVID-19. (Updated: 18 January 2021)


Validation studies for NSDD

Validation studies for the NSDD

A validation of the original, longer food frequency questionnaire (84 foods) was performed among 196 participants with repeated 24-hour food recall interviews and plasma β-carotene measurements (Johansson et al., 2002). The participants also answered the same food questionnaire twice within a 1-year period. There was a good agreement of the reported energy and nutrient intake between the two questionnaire occasions. A somewhat higher food intake was estimated with the food frequency questionnaire compared to the 24-hour food recall interviews. Despite a high proportion of under-reporters the validity of the FFQ is considered equal to that of other FFQs used in prospective cohort studies (Johansson et al., 2001). Recently, intake of a number of essential fatty acids, fatty acid profile in erythrocyte membranes (Wennberg et al., 2009), vitamin B intake (Johansson et al., 2010), and plant sterols (Klingberg et al., 2013) have been validated against 24-hour food recall interviews


Johansson I, Hallmans G, Ericsson S, Hagman U, Bruce Å, Wikman Å, Kaaks R, Riboli R. Evaluation of the accuracy of a dietary questionnaire aimed for the Västerbotten study. Scand J Nutr1994;38:50-55

Johansson G, Wikman Å, Åhrén A-M, Hallmans G, Johansson I. Underreporting of energy intake in repeated 24-hour recalls related to gender, age, weight status, day of interview, educational level, reported food intake, smoking status and area of living. Publ Hlth Nutr 2001;4(4):919-927

Johansson I, Hallmans G, Wikman Å, Biessy C, Riboli E, Kaaks R. Validation and calibration of food-frequency questionnaire measurements in the Northern Sweden Health and Disease cohort. Publ Hlth Nutr 2002;5(3):487-496

Wennberg M, Vessby B, Johansson I. Evaluation of relative intake of fatty acids according to the Northern Sweden FFQ with fatty acid levels in erythrocyte membranes as biomarkers. Publ Hlth Nutr 2009;12(9):1477-1484

Winkvist A, Hornell A, Hallmans G, Lindahl B, Weinehall L, Johansson I. More distinct food intake patterns among women than men in northern Sweden: a population-based survey. Nutr J 2009;8(12)

Johansson I, Van Guelpen B, Hultdin J, Johansson M, Hallmans G, Stattin P. Validity of food frequency questionnaire estimated intakes of folate and other B vitamins in a region without folic acid fortification. Eur J Clin Nutr 2010;64:905-913

Klingberg S, Winkvist A, Hallmans G, Johansson I. Evaluation of plant sterol intake estimated with the Northern Sweden FFQ. Public Health Nutr. 2013;16:460-467