The course addresses some fundamental problem concerning the driving forces in chemical and biological systems. The basic concepts in the language of thermodynamics are introduced. What determines the direction of a spontaneous change? Entropy defined thermodynamically and microscopically. Focusing on the system: Gibbs and Helmholtz energy is introduced and standard Gibbs energy describing reactions and physical transformations. Thermodynamics for simple mixtures are fundamental for understanding of complex system not least biochemical systems. Phase diagrams of one and two components, and immiscible liquids and liquid crystals are briefly discussed. Chemical equilibrium is described in terms of Gibbs energy, why do the equilibrium constant looks as it does? Understanding electrochemistry is most fundamental for all chemistry and biochemistry, where all processes of interest (nerve signals for instance) are happening in a sodium chloride solution.
The course will be given in english if foreign students participate.