The time for the seminars is Thursday at 13:00-14:00.
(Fatmomakke NBET 4th floor)
“Complete to the Last Man”: The hospital ship Strathcona III and the mass x-ray survey for tuberculosis in Labrador, 1970.
John R.H. Matchim, University of New Brunswick’s Department of History (CAN)
John R.H. Matchim, a Ph.D. candidate at the University of New Brunswick’s Department of History (CAN) will discuss the International Grenfell Association (IGA), a semi-autonomous health care provider that operated in northern Newfoundland and Labrador until 1981, and its use of mass x-ray surveys to reduce the incidence of tuberculosis among the Indigenous communities of northern Labrador.
Rather than addressing the social causes of tuberculosis – forced population relocation, poorly constructed housing, health care inequities – the IGA adopted a technological response, building a new hospital ship, the Strathcona III, that could follow Innu and Inuit communities as they moved to summer fishing and hunting stations. Consequently, the mass surveys undertaken by the Strathcona III prioritized the highest possible x-ray ‘score’ – “complete to the last man” – over individual and community well being. The use of ships and buses to conduct x-ray surveys in rural-remote regions was also tried in Sweden, Greenland and Alaska, as well as the Canadian Arctic. This talk will situate the IGA’s surveys in a circumpolar context.
(Fatmomakke NBET 4th floor)
Sleep in the context of the quality of life.
Michaela Kudrnáčová, Faculty of Social Science, Charles University, Sociological Institute of the Czech Academy of Sciences
Abstract: Sleep is a key aspect of life. On average, individuals sleep about one-third of their lifetimes, and variation in the amount and quality of sleep affects how a person feels both physically and mentally. Given that various sleep determinants (sleep-wake cycle, duration, etc.) are produced by the temporal organization of social life, social scientists should turn their attention to this phenomenon and also become more open to a multidisciplinary solution. Yet, with rare exceptions, sleep research has been dominated by biomedical approaches.
I intend to introduce my doctoral research, in which I am focusing on various sleep determinants in the context of quality of life with an emphasis on the social aspects. I am going to discuss the role of sleep in quality of life and how work conditions and family situation condition sleep.
I'm utilizing inputs from a large sample panel study Czech Household Panel Survey (CHPS) which repeatedly interviewed Czech households during 2015-2021 about their family life, time use, health, education and the labour market, social stratification, housing and political participation. Moreover, I plan to use also quite extensive data capturing the experience of Czech university students during a COVID-19 pandemic which was inspired by the COVID-19 International Student Well-being Study. Both CHPS and Czech university students data contain sleep variables according to the Munich ChronoType Questionnaire.
17/3 (on zoom)
The characteristics and consequences of migration in northern Sweden during industrialization, 1900-1950.
Samuel Sundvall, Department of Historical Philosophical and Religious Studies, Centre for Demographic and Aging Research (CEDAR)
Abstract: Urbanization can have a significant impact on the demographic profile of rural regions apart from leading to a decline in the rural population. For example, rural-urban migration has previously been shown to affect population structures such as the composition of age and gender, in both place of origin and destination. Rural areas in northern Sweden have been particularly affected by this development with contemporary trends including population decline, rapidly ageing population and skewed sex ratios with substantial male surplus. While the general development of rural-urban migration in Sweden are well known, especially after the 1960s, we know little about how rural-urban migration gradually developed from the industrial breakthrough up until 1960s, especially for the parts of Sweden that has been most adversely affected by urban-rural migration and population decline.
This study aims to describe the characteristics of the migration flows, and thereby also the short-term impact of migration on population development, in rural and urban regions in the northern Swedish county of Västerbotten pertaining to age, gender and the destination of out-migrants during the shift from an agrarian to an industrial society, 1900-1950. This is done using digitalized parish register data from the POPLINK-database
The findings suggest that the contemporary pattern of rural-urban migration in northern Sweden developed already during the early 1900s. Rural areas experienced an ever increasing net migration loss during the period, most notably of young working-age women. However, net population loss was for the majority of the period counteracted by high fertility rates. In contrast, the rapid population growth in the urban region were almost primarily driven by high in-migration until the late 1940s. Furthermore, the rural population were shown to have migrated to a lesser extent, and also shorter distances, than the urban population all throughout the investigated period.
17/2 (on Zoom)
Infectious disease mortality among infants, seasonality and ambient temperature in Sweden, 1868-1892
Johan Junkka, Centre for demographic and ageing research, Umeå university
Maria Hiltonen, Centre for demographic and ageing research, Umeå university
Abstract: Climate variability, such as ambient temperature, is crucial for infants' vulnerability to infectious diseases. However, little is known about how climate variability affects infectious disease mortality among infants in high mortality settings. We investigate the association between ambient temperature, seasonality and cause-specific infant mortality. Parish register data from the Sundsvall region in Northern Sweden covering the period 1868-1892 were used in combination with daily temperature data from Härnösand. Mortality due to water- and food-born diseases, airborne infectious diseases, and other causes were modelled as a function of temperature exposure in the previous 14 days using Poisson time-series analysis. We found that airborne infectious disease mortality was not related to cold temperatures but rather to seasonality. The summer mortality peak due to water- and foodborne infections were associated with high temperatures and not with seasonality.