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Persistent identifiers for publications and data

A persistent identifier (PI or PID) for a publication is a warrant that the publication both can be found and retrieved as well as distinguished from other similar publications. There are several formats for permanent identifiers. One and the same publication can be assigned several kinds of permanent identifiers.

Digital Object Identifier (DOI)

A Digital Object Identifier (DOI) is a unique identifier that is assigned to digital resources in order to make them possible to find in a persistent and sustainable way. The DOI provide a persistent link to the resource, regardless of where the resource is currently located and stored. DOI is administered by an external agency, the International DOI foundation (IDF).

Many publishers assign DOI to articles. Most often, one can see the DOI on the same page as the abstract or in the header or footer of the page. DOI can be used when referencing or citing publications, for example in a reference list. Also, DOI is very useful in order to cross reference data when making publication analyses. If a publication has a DOI it should always be included when registering the publication in DiVA.

DOI is also used for research data and data sets, making them searchable even when they aren't published or open access. Making use of PID:s, such as DOI:s, are an important part of research data management when it comes to fulfilling the FAIR principles -- making data FAIR. 

DOI (International DOI Foundation)

More on: FAIR data

Uniform resource name (URN)

Uniform resource name (URN), like DOI, is a unique permanent identifier format that is assigned to digital resources in order to make sure that they are possible to find long term. The URN results in a persistent link to the resource, regardless of where the resource is currently located and stored. 

All publications and posts registered in the DiVA publication database is automatically assigned an URN. The URN codes in DiVA is in the local format URN:NBN, where NBN stands for National Bibliography Number.

The URN format is developed by the Internet engineering task force (IETF), who also developed well-known Internet standards such as HTTP and HTTPS.

Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF)

International standard book number (ISBN)

International standard book number (ISBN) is used as a unique ID for books, reports, theses, anthologies and other publications of monographic character.

Through the ISBN standard it is possible to distinguish books/monographs with identical titles, as well as reworked versions and different editions of one and the same monograph. When a publications has an ISBN it should always be included when registering the publication in DiVA.

Conducting searches using ISBN is a way to make sure not only to find the right publication, but to find the right version of the publication you are looking for. 

More information about ISBN can be found on the International ISBN Agency homepage:

What is an ISBN?

ISBN for monographies published by Umeå University

When a monograph or a monographic part of a series is published with Umeå university as the publisher, an ISBN for the publication is acquired through the library. 

Theses, anthologies and monographic parts of series, such as reports, should be assigned an ISBN number. Online monographic publications also need an ISBN. If the publication is published in different formats, for example both in print and in a digital edition, each format are to have an ISBN of its own.

Order ISBN

A monograph is a written study or literary piece focused on a single subject, in contrast to periodic literature.

International standard serial number (ISSN)

International standard serial number (ISSN) is used in order to identify periodic series and open ended publication series, for example journals and series of reports. A monographic part of a series can simultaneously be assigned both an ISBN and an ISSN.

The ISSN number and the serial number of the publication is administered by the publisher, not by the library. If a publication will be part of a series, the faculty or institution responsible for the series can provide information on which ISSN and serial number the publication are to have and how it should be presented.

When a publication has an ISSN it should always be included when registering the publication in DiVA.

Read more about ISSN at the ISSN International Centre homepage:

What is an ISSN?