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Oxford - references in text

In the Oxford style the citations in the text normally consist of a raised (superscript) number and a list of footnotes at the bottom of the page for all citations on that page.

Footnote with complete bibliographic information

It is not always necessary to have a reference list at the end of an essay when footnotes contain the full bibliographic information.

Consult your teacher for guidance.

Example

Alan Bryman. Social research methods. 3. ed. Oxford: Oxford university press, 2008, 65

Footnote with abridged bibliographic information

If a document or source is cited several times in the text, you can use abridged bibliographic information (author´s family name, title and page number(s) or equivalent). This is combined with a reference list at the end of the essay.

Example

Bryman. Social research methods, 79

Footnote when two references in a row are from the same source

Use “ibid.” (=same as last entry) when two references in a row are from the same source and state page number(s) if different (and applicable).

Example

3 Ibid, 83