Up until 1999, Swedish universities appointed professors only after a public posting and a competition between those applying for the chair. Experts for assessing the applicants’ merits were chosen from universities other than that recruiting. The experts were (1) to deem whether or not each of the applicants was eligible for a professorship, and (2) to rank the eligible applicants. This process was regulated in the Higher Education Ordinance. In 1998 an addendum was made to the Ordinance to the effect that any senior lecturer could apply for promotion to become professor. The procedure for recruiting experts, the demands on them, and the requirements for eligibility on part of the applicant remained unchanged. The procedures for recruiting through public posting and a competition also remained unchanged.