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Image: Sofi Östman


Where possible, MAL implements an integrated multiproxy approach to sample processing, analysis and interpretation (see Figure). When combined with research orientated sampling strategies and well documented stratigraphy, the different methods allow for a more comprehensive understanding of the genesis of both natural and archaeological sediments. Proxies tend to complement each other, the results of one method providing insights where preservation or context renders another less productive. For example, insects provide information on environments beyond that provided by pollen from wind pollinated plants, and plant macrofossils provide information on the use of plants where the presence of pollen is limited.

Please contact us before planning your excavation from help on the most effective set of methods for answering your research questions.


Buckland, P. I., Buckland, P. C., & Olsson, F. (2018). Paleoentomology: insects and other arthropods in environmental archaeology. In Encyclopedia of global archaeology (2nd ed.). https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-51726-1_2333-2 

Latest update: 2022-12-22